an eighth conduit connecting the condenser receiving tank outlet to the second intermediate slurry tank inlet. The liquid from the condenser receiving tank 16 is expanded to just below the triple point (about 72 psia for CO2) and stored in the intermediate slurry tank 37. When more than one recirculation line is employed, it is an option for the inlets to face complementary directions to thus impart a flow in the same direction. 5 and 6, in another aspect of the present invention, the liquid refrigerant supplied from the condenser receiving tank 16, may be directly injected into the intermediate slurry tank 37. A two-stage cascade system uses two pairs of compressor plants, working individually with different refrigerants, connected among themselves so that evaporator one system is used to serve as the capacitor to a lower temperature of the system (i.e. Therefore, the two-stage compression refrigeration system with one throttling is adopted in practice. FIG. 31. an intermediate pressure conduit line connecting the second mixing tank outlet and the intermediate pressure compressor inlet. In one embodiment, control settings are set to prevent flow rate and pressure in the direct injection system 200 from reaching a freeze up point. The modifications may include: sloping the conduit, placing the point of refrigerant expansion close to the intermediate slurry tank, feeding gas into the system to add turbulence or heat, a special valve seat which forces the pressure drop to occur down stream of an expansion valve, or a direct injection system 200 to place the liquid refrigerant discharge directly into the intermediate slurry tank. A refrigerator expansion line as claimed in, 30. ... Chapter 3 contains a full description of the dynamic model of a two-stage refrigeration system, and Chapter 4 presents the ACSL simulation model implemented and illustrates its validity. Strong notes, however, that this pressure difference is limited, and must not be greater than the pressure from the column of slurry coming out of separator outlet 31′. A two-stage compression refrigeration system operates with refrigerant-134a between the pressure limits of 1.4 and 0.10 MPa. 3, in one embodiment of the present invention, the refrigerant used in conjunction with the invention can be carbon dioxide (CO2) and the liquid can be d'limonene, the intermediate slurry tank 37 receives and stores CO2 vapor as well as a slurry of CO2, particles in the d'limonene liquid. If the side port of the main compressor cannot handle the mass flow of vapor, a two stage compression system, with the interstage pressure being the pressure of the intermediate slurry tank is an optional embodiment. FIGS. The needle 203 is specially shaped so that the needle 203 may seal outlet 205. 9 illustrates a cross sectional view taken from the horizontal plane of a refrigeration recirculation line according to a further aspect of the present invention. The linear actuator 215 may act on the connector 221 and spindle 211 to move the needle 203 with respect to outlet 205, starting or stopping flow of refrigerant. While a throttling only passes through one expansion valve, most refrigerants are throttled directly from condensing pressure to evaporating pressure. In one possible embodiment of this invention, seat 101 comprises a triangular shaped opening 103 across the seat's diameter. Referring to FIG. In another aspect of the invention, the compression system 10 of the present invention may be of various arrangements. It plays two roles, one is equivalent to two throttles of the intermediate liquid separator, the other is the use of a small part of the liquid endothermic evaporation, the exhaust of the low-pressure machine for complete intermediate cooling. The appearance of the phrase “in one embodiment” in various places in the specification are not necessarily referring to the same embodiment. The intermediate slurry tank is preferably maintained below the triple point of CO2. A main slurry tank 36 receives and stores the discharge from evaporator 3, and may typically be maintained at 15 psia. The prior art of Strong describes the use of the pressure regulator 35′ as useful for equalizing the pressure between the mixing tank 37′ and the separator 36′, or for maintaining a pressure difference between the two. Room temperature warm. The refrigerant leaves the condenser as a saturated liquid and is throttled to a flash chamber operating at 0.4 MPa. The … More lubricating oil is taken out by superheated steam, which increases the load of oil separator, makes the oil vaporize and oil vapor enter the system in large quantity and affects the heat transfer effect of the heat exchanger. The inlet 61 may be tangential to the vertical curvature of the slurry tank wall. 8 and 9, and may be placed directly above the outlet. In one embodiment a linear actuator 215 may be connected to the proximal end of inner pipe 207 by a housing 219. The trickle gas injection line discharges gas upstream from the injector orifice. In a refrigeration system for use with a slurry of solid sublimatable particles in a liquid having a mixing tank with a first outlet, a first inlet, and a second inlet; an evaporator with an inlet and an outlet; a first conduit connecting the first mixing tank outlet to the inlet of the evaporator; a separator with a first inlet, first outlet, and second outlet; a second conduit connecting the evaporator outlet to the first separator inlet; the separator discharging directly to the mixing tank by the shared opening of the first separator outlet and the first mixing tank inlet; a compressor with an inlet and an outlet; a third conduit connecting the second outlet of the separator to the compressor inlet; a condenser having an inlet and outlet; a fourth conduit connecting the compressor outlet and the condenser inlet; a receiver having an inlet and outlet; a fifth conduit connecting the condenser outlet to the receiver inlet; a sixth conduit connecting the receiver outlet to the second inlet of the mixing tank; wherein the improvement comprises: the mixing tank having a second outlet for outlet of refrigerant vapor; the compressor having an intermediate pressure inlet for receiving refrigerant vapor; and. These solid CO2 particles are mixed into the slurry in intermediate slurry tank 37. The mixing tank 37′ has a first outlet 5′, second outlet 34′, a first inlet 31′, and a second inlet 17′. The longer time this pressure transition exists, the larger the refrigerant particles become. The system operates the evaporator at -40°C, the condenser at 800 kPa, and the separator at -10.1 C. The system … Heat exchange for additional supercooling of the liquid refrigerant 5. The gas transmission coefficient of the compressor is greatly reduced, and when the compression ratio is ≥20, = 0. The rotor 225 is positioned in face-to-face relationship with the expansion valve seat 227. Cascade systems. 4. The proximal end of inner pipe 207 has an inlet 208 for receiving refrigerant 17. In one embodiment, an outer pipe 209 may surround at least a proximal portion of inner pipe 207 and may form an insulation gap between the outer and inner pipes. The pump may not only be provided to move slurry from the main slurry tank to the intermediate slurry tank 37, but also may be provided to create and maintain the pressure in the intermediate slurry tank 37 below the triple point of the refrigerant. When the needle 203 is moved with respect to the needle valve seat 201, the tapered portion of the needle 203 allows and controls the amount of flow through the outlet 205. One of the problems with Strong, that the present invention seeks to solve, includes the potential plugging of the system due to the particles of refrigerant clogging or freezing shut conduits, valves, or inlets and outlets. A conduit connects the second outlet of the intermediate slurry tank to the intermediate pressure inlet of the compression system so as to compress the vapor with less energy than would be needed to compress low pressure refrigerant vapor. The compression force of the spring 226 may prevent or limit solids from building up between the rotor 225 and the nozzle valve seat 227. The expansion causes solid particles of CO2 to form from the liquid CO2. The seat comprises a ring shaped base comprising an outer ring 105 and an inner ring 109 connected by a depression 107. The compression ratios of each stage are kept below 10. A main slurry tank receives and stores the discharge from evaporator. 4, a seat 101 for a ball valve, such as valve 18 may be, is shown. The main slurry tank 36 has a first lower outlet 31 for outflow of at least the liquid, a second upper outlet 12 for outflow of the refrigerant vapor, and an inlet 9, where a conduit 7 connects the evaporator outlet 8 and the main slurry tank inlet 9. A refrigerator direct injection system as claimed in, 34. In one embodiment the seat 101 allows flow only when the handle position of the valve 18 is at least about 20% open. The intermediate slurry tank 37 will be large enough to accommodate splashing from the addition of refrigerant from the condenser receiving tank 16. Generally, two-circuit and rarely three-circuit cascade systems are used for low temperature refrigeration In the present study a critical review is discussed about analysis of two stage cascade refrigeration system with In one embodiment the trickle feed gas may be supplied from the compression system 10 discharge. Other readings could be used, such as temperature readings of the air in the refrigerator. The condenser receiving tank sends the liquid CO2 back to the intermediate slurry tank. The separated flash gas can be returned to the compression system 10 for compression. The refrigerant must be immiscible in the liquid at a given temperature and pressure. Referring to FIG. Wilson, and W.E. A refrigerator direct injection system as claimed in, 33. Two-Stage Refrigeration Cycle: A two-stage compression refrigeration system with an adiabatic liquid-vapor separation unit uses refrigerant-134a as the working fluid. A two-stage refrigeration system includes an intermediate slurry tank for receiving and storing a refrigerant vapor and a slurry of solid sublimatable refrigerant particles in a liquid. 3.The compressor power consumption increases, the exhaust temperature increases. The foregoing aspects and many of the attendant advantages of this invention will become more readily appreciated as the same become better understood by reference to the following detailed description, when taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, wherein: FIG. CHANGE OF NAME;ASSIGNOR:FRIGOSCANDIA EQUIPMENT AB;REEL/FRAME:040823/0836. The valve may be shut when freeze-up conditions are near. Referring to FIGS. Eight types of refrigerants The present invention can include an intermediate slurry tank 37 for receiving and storing a refrigerant vapor and a slurry of solid sublimatable refrigerant particles in a liquid. A conduit 20 connects the compression system outlet 14 and the condenser inlet 21. The fraction of the refrigerant that flows around the second The prior art of Strong describes agitating the bottoms of mixing tank 37′ by feeding back slurry from conduit 4′. The separator 36′ has a first inlet 9′, first outlet 31′, and second outlet 12′. The discharge from the evaporator 3 is typically of slurry and CO2 vapor, but could be only slurry, or could be only liquid d'limonene and CO2 vapor. In such cases multi-stage systems are used in practice. These solid CO2 particles are mixed into the slurry in intermediate slurry tank. A refrigerator direct injection system for injecting a liquid into a slurry tank for a vapor and a slurry of solid sublimatable particles in a second liquid, comprising: a delivery line with an inlet and outlet, the inner pipe outlet connected to the valve seat; a liquid feed source connected to the delivery line inlet; a spindle received within the delivery line; wherein the spindle may move the valve member with respect to the valve seat for sealing or opening the valve seat opening; and. 21. The condenser receiving tank stores the liquid CO2 condensate and is maintained at a higher pressure than the intermediate slurry tank. While the preferred embodiment of the invention has been illustrated and described, it will be appreciated that various changes can be made therein without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention. The expansion valve seat 227 may have an arcuate-shaped expansion valve opening or outlet 228. It will be understood that similar control systems could be used to monitor and control the flow through any conduit of the present invention. The middle pressure is 0.355 MPA (absolute pressure), the pressure ratio is 1.353 / 0.3553.81 for high- pressure stage and 0.355 / 0.09333.82 for low- pressure stage. The refrigeration system also includes a compression system having a first low pressure inlet and second intermediate pressure inlet, and having a high pressure outlet. The compression system may comprise a main compressor with a side port for receiving the flash gasses. As noted above, in the present invention, liquid refrigerant is expanded during transfer to the intermediate slurry tank 37. Alternatively or in addition, the conduit 19 should be as straight as possible to avoid small areas of greater refrigerant residency, which may cause solid refrigerant to form partial or complete blockage of the conduit. This system is employed to obtain temperatures of -40 to -80°C or ultra-low temperatures lower than them. The supercooled liquid passes through the main expansion valve to reduce the pressure to the supercooled liquid of low temperature and low pressure and finally enters into the evaporator to absorb heat and evaporate, producing the cooling effect. As noted above, in the present invention, liquid refrigerant is expanded during transfer to the intermediate slurry tank 37.

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